Biology & ecology research includes biological traits of species, species occurrence and distribution, ecological functions, and food-web interactions. This category also incorporated genetic studies. 

        Contamination & pollution: research incorporates topics on environmental contaminants in sharks and the impact of plastic pollution, including lost and abandoned fishing gear.

        Fisheries research is related to shark fisheries, including bycatch, fishing gear, fisheries management tools and applications, shark landings, the impact of fishing on sharks, and illegal fishing activities. 

        Shark product trade & meat consumption encompasses research that focuses on the trade of shark products and meat and their consumption/use.

Humans & sharks. This category includes research on media reporting, public perceptions, and interactions of sharks, including research on “shark attacks”. In this regard, research on shark repellents is also incorporated in this category. Furthermore, it includes cultural relationships with sharks where cultural views are the focus of the research.

       Conservation measures & management research focuses on specific measures, such as marine protected areas, shark management tools, and assessments, excluding fisheries-related tools and approaches.

Policy tools & analyses research investigates the implementation of specific legal instruments such as CITES and CMS, and political problems and determines course of actions, comparison between different policies, regulatory approaches, and analyses of political actions.

Tourism research relates to touristic activities that involve sharks, such as whale shark tours, diving with sharks, and cage diving. This category includes the impact and influence of these activities on people and sharks. It does not include studies that focus on the regulations of this sector. Such studies will be included in the category of policy tools and analyses.


Legal research analyses the application of relevant legal instruments and legal developments, e.g. high seas conservation under the development of a new agreement under the LOSC for the conservation of marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction.  


        Aquaria/husbandry is research related to husbandry and aquaria, including educational values of these institutions.

Any research that does not fall within one of the listed categories falls under “other“.

Guides & guidelines contains advise published by institutions and organisations that are involved in shark governance.

This library of publications and resources does not claim to be complete or exclusive. Any research publication, report or other document listed here was helpful in this study and that is why they are listed here. No bias or discrimination was ever intended. 

All images, logos, pictures are owned by L. Koehler, if not indicated otherwise.